Slavery (Romanian: robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the ), Vasile Alecsandri also wrote a short story, Istoria unui Galbân (“History of a gold coin”, ), while Gheorghe . 99; ^ Mihail Kogălniceanu, wikisource:ro:Dezrobirea țiganilor, ștergerea privilegiilor boierești, emanciparea. Originea si istoria tiganilor: Cum au ajuns in Europa. Mihai Mircea, “Cu privire la originea si istoria tiganilor,” Revista de cercetari sociale, nr. 4/ I. Muraru, “Studii constitutionale,” Ed. Actam (Bucuresti, ).

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The two countries were for most of their history the only territory in Eastern and Central Europe where Roma slavery was legislated, and the place where this was most extended.

A similar process also took place in some villages, where the number of Gypsy families was small. A slaveowner had the power to free his slaves for good service, either during his lifetime or in his will, but these cases were rather rare.

The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people’s arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, the Romanians taking the Roma idtoria the Mongols as slaves and preserving their status.

The postal address of the institution is: It would appear, however, that on the level of their community life, the Gypsies have suffered acutely as a result of the disappearance of their traditional neighbourhoods.

The motion of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers Party regarding the national problem from Decemberwhich laid the foundations for the isforia of the new regime with regard to the ethnic minorities, ignored the existence of the Gypsies. There is very little available information about this programme and about the Gypsy policy tibanilor at the end of the s and during the s.

However, the slavery of the Roma was not considered a priority and it was ignored by most reformers.

As a consequence, the slaves became peasants, continuing to work for their former masters or joining the nomadic Roma craftsmen and musicians. While it is possible that some Romani people were slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, the bulk of them came from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


The order met the opposition of the large slaveholders: However, things did not go as expected, the tiganillr of the villages “sank to deplorable levels” and their inhabitants refused to pay any taxes. The slavery of the Roma in bordering Transylvania was found especially in the fiefs and ixtoria under the influence of Wallachia and Moldavia, these areas keeping their practice of slavery even after they were no longer under Wallachian or Moldavian possession.

Slavery in Romania – Wikipedia

We do not believe that this argument can be supported. Panaitescuwas that following the Crusadesan important East-West trade route passed through the Romanian states and the local feudal lords enslaved the Roma for economic gain for lack of other craftsmen.

A freeman killing a slave was also liable for death penalty and a boyar was not tigwnilor to kill his own slaves, but no such sentencing is attested. The people whose houses and shacks were demolished were, as a rule, provided with better living conditions than those they had previously owned. In the final decade of the Communist regime, even the agricultural co-operatives sometimes summoned the Gypsies to work, even though they were not members of the respective co-operative.

In Romania, for tiganilorr long time no attempt was made to solve the specific problems faced by this population. Your e-mail has be sent. For the Gypsies mentioned above, moving into a block of flats meant gaining a minimum level of comfort.

Deportarea romilor în Transnistria

Views Read Edit View history. If they received an order from another village, they would move on to the other village. The slaves were owned by the boyarsthe Christian Orthodox monasteries, or the state.

A small section of the native Roma population managed to evade the system either by not having been originally enslaved as a group, or by regrouping runaway slaves. It constituted a further obstacle on the road to social development and the process of integration. In summer they continued to wander the country practising their traditional crafts or peddling their wares.

According to Romanian Djuvara: The authorities controlled the different groups of Gypsies through the intermediaries of their traditional leaders. However, this is only one aspect of the reality. Citizens of Gypsy origin experienced both the positive and negative effects of these transformations.

Slavery, together with serfdom, was only abolished by the emancipation laws of The social prestige of a slave master was often proportional to the number and kinds of skilled slaves in his possession, outstanding cooks and embroiderers being used to symbolically demonstrate the high status of the boyar families.


The emancipation of slaves owned by the state and Romanian Orthodox and Greek Orthodox monasteries was mentioned in the programme of the confederative conspiracy of Leonte Radu in Moldavia, giving them equal rights with the Romanians. By country or region. The deed was also confirmed in by Prince Michael I Apafi. In the villages, the Gypsies built houses in the style of the majority population in the last decades of the regime.

Feel free to give our address: In many cases, they had not paid their rent, electricity bills etc. However, this theory is undermined by the fact that slavery was present before the trade route gained importance. A report fromwhich recorded the measures taken to integrate the Gypsies into work, notes the fact that after receiving a job, many Gypsies abandoned their place of work.

From a population of approximatelyGypsies in the s and s, their actual number not that which results from declarations made in censuses 8 had by reachedaccording to the report mentioned earlier.

In the villages, where in some places the Gypsies have preserved their occupational specificity even up until the present day, they worked in agriculture to a greater extent than in the past.

Political forces observed that the Gypsies constituted a particular social problem and consequently initiated a programme of social integration for them. The Roma in Romanian History [online].

Many Gypsies were housed in blocks of flats with a level of comfort higher than that of their former dwellings. Some made a career in politics, reaching the higher echelons of the Party apparatus. Roma artisans were occasionally allowed to practice their trade outside the boyar household, in exchange for their own revenue.

Deportarea romilor în Transnistria – Wikipedia

A similar chrysobull was decreed by Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris inwhich not only banned such marriages, but invalidated any such existing marriage. They have remained among the poorest in society, despite encouraging social progress.

The marginalisation that has characterised the Gypsies throughout their history was accentuated during Communism. Each of the slave categories was divided into two groups: As a rule, due to the precarious nature of their qualifications, the Gypsies were forced to perform unskilled and poorly paid work. The programme of social integration of the Gypsies was only partially implemented and for too short a time.