I. CONSTITUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL. Article 1. In pursuance of the Agreement signed on the 8th day of August by the. The lesser-known International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) was . The Charter provided for MacArthur to appoint judges to the IMTFE from the. In our opinion the laws of the Charter is decisive and binding on the Tribunal. This is a special tribunal set up by the Supreme Commander under authority.

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Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, 15 volumes. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Confine the trial strictly to an expeditious hearing of the issues raised by the charges.

The Tokyo Trial indictment did mimic elements that were present in the Nuremberg indictment, but on an altogether grander scale.

The presence of a majority of all members shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. Following World War II, the victorious Allied governments established the first international criminal tribunals to prosecute high-level political officials and military authorities for war crimes and other wartime atrocities.

The Tokyo Charter adds the categories of persons to be held responsible and it does not make “persecution” subject to “religious” grounds. In the absence of such request the Tribunal may appoint counsel for an accused if in its judgment such appointment is necessary to provide for a fair trial.

A copy of a document or other secondary evidence of its contents, if the original is not immediately available. Sub navigation Services and tools Library Treaties If the Control Council for Germany, after any Defendant has been convicted and sentenced, discovers fresh evidence which, in its opinion, would found a fresh charge against him, the Council shall report accordingly to the Committee established under Article 14 hereof, for such action as they may consider proper, having regard to the interests of justice.

To require the production of documents and other evidentiary material, d. Namely, violations of the laws or customs of war; c.

Tokyo Charter – Wikipedia

The court president, Sir William Webb of Australia, required nine days to read it in court November 4—12, To interrogate each accused and to permit comment on his refusal to answer any question.

Each accused shall have the right to be represented by counsel of his own selection, subject to the disapproval of such counsel at any time by the Tribunal. Take strict measures to prevent any action which would cause any unreasonable delay and rule out irrelevant issues and statements of any kind whatsoever.


The Committee shall act in all the above matters by a majority vote and shall appoint a Chairman as may be convenient and in accordance with the principle of rotation: Later, copies of this brief were handed out to individual members of the tribunal.

The decision to release these men was taken as a purely political act and had nothing much to do with the merits of their individual cases. The Demilitarisation of Japan. Nederland en het Tribunaal van Tokio.

Treaties, States parties, and Commentaries – Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal,

Article 1 Tribunal established The International Military Tribunal for the Far East is hereby established for the just charfer prompt trial and punishment of the major war itmfe in the Far East. At first, not all of the defendants welcomed the Americans who were offered to them, but eventually all came to the conclusion that it was advisable to engage one or other of them. The record of the trial will be transmitted directly to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers for his action thereon.

The charter was issued months following the surrender of Japan on September 2,which brought World War II to an end. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. On a number of occasions the thrust of questions put to witnesses came perilously close to implicating Emperor Hirohito personally, but the trial also provided powerful support for the viewpoint that he was a benign constitutional monarch who wanted a durable peace and prosperity for his people.

The Tribunal shall have the power to try and punish Far Eastern war criminals who as individuals or as members of organizations are charged with offences which include Imtre against Peace. Three defendants were found not guilty, one committed suicide prior to trial, and one did not stand trial due to physical or mental illness.

Appleman, John Alan Cite this article Pick chrter style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. This is a more modern conception of legality than was applied at Imffe. A report which appears to the Tribunal to have been signed or issued by the International Red Cross or a member thereof, or by a doctor of medicine or any medical service personnel, or by an investigator or intelligence officer, or by any chartwr person who appears to the Tribunal to have personal knowledge of the matters contained in the report.

So much of the record and of the proceedings chafter also be translated into the language of any country in which the Tribunal is sitting, as the Tribunal is sitting, as the Tribunal considers desirable in the interests of the justice and public opinion. On March 7,the supreme commander issued a directive that reduced the sentences by one-third for good behavior and authorized the parole of those who had received life sentences after fifteen years.


The Comprehensive Index and Guide, 5 vols. Confine the trial strictly to an expeditious hearing of the issues raised by the charges, b. In neither the Tokyo nor the Nuremberg Trials was it deemed sufficient for the defense chartet show that the acts of responsible officers or of government ministers and officials were protected as “acts of state.

These terms and definitions were adopted nearly verbatim in the Charter of the IMTFE, but have been replicated and expanded in a succession of international legal instruments since charte time.

Tokyo Trial

Three categories of crimes were defined: The charter set out the jurisdiction of the tribunal and established the individual responsibility of the accused for acts of state and for acts taken in compliance with superior orders.

The Tribunal shall not require proof of facts of common knowledge but shall take judicial notice xharter. The function of any Chief Prosecutor may be discharged by him personally, or by any person or persons authorized by him. Accused by counsel only, if represented may address the Tribunal. Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article.

Seven Nazi organizations also were indicted.

Japan Judicial Affairs Board In addition, they would be permitted to present evidence in their defense and to cross-examine witnesses.

But they also relied on their military and national tribunals, where they applied their own laws. A large number of persons were charrer in custody with the intention of bringing them to justice as Class A war criminals.

But the ways these crimes were dealt with inevitably differed, and there were fifty-five counts on the indictment at Tokyo compared to four at Nuremberg. The Nuremberg Trial lasted from November to October The United States held twelve such trials from toeach of which combined defendants who were accused of similar acts or had participated in related events. Other delegations took even longer to arrive several of the judges did not arrive until the trial had already begun.